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Björn E. W. Nordenström, M.D.

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Björn E. W. Nordenström, M.D.

Emeritus Professor of Radiology

Department of Diagnostic Radiology

Karolinska Institute and Hospital Stockholm, Sweden

Exploring BCEC-Systems

(Biologically Closed Electric Circuits)

Nordic Medical Publications

C 1998 Björn E. W. Nordenström, Karolinska Institute and Hospital. Stockholm, Sweden All rights reserved. Permission to reproduce material from this book must be obtained from the author.

This book may be obtained from

Nordic Medical Publications

Arsenalsgatan 4

S- 114 47 Stockholm, Sweden

Phone +46 8 6797475, Fax +46 8 6797220

Content (chapter one)

Foreword by Prof. George D. O'Clock, Ph.D. 



1. Introduction

2. A guiding philosophy often initiates developments 

3. Electricity 

4. The electromagnetic field (EMF)

5. Matter of our physical world 

6. Prerequisites for the presence of BCEC (Biologically Closed Electric Circuits)

7. Certain characteristics of BCEC-systems

8. EMF-signalling inducing displacement of ions at activation of BCEC-Systems 

9. Self-cleaning animals

10. Harmful interactions in Biology 

11. The electromagnetic BCEC-orchestra(s) of the body 

12. Why biologically closed electric circuits? 

13. lonic co-transport - field quenching and proliferation of matter 

14-36 : chapter two


When 1 read Dr. Björn Nordenström's first book Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC) 1 did not understand it. I believed in his basic premise, that the human body has an additional electrical circulatory system This system involves the co-transport of ions and electrons that form continuous electric currents in various portions of the body. But 1 had a difficult time reading and understanding his first book. I read it over and over again. and I still had difficulties getting "the message". I thought, "Maybe this material is just too complex for me."

Then, it all came together in a flash. In a moment of inspiration 1 realized that my problems with understanding his book was not because contained complex material. The real reason that 1 was having difficult understanding Dr. Nordenström's message was because - - - his message is simple - - - the theory behind it is simple. My preconceived notions were the source of the complexity that 1 had imagined. All I had to do was to out a few preconceived notions, ignore some of my previous training in biomedical sciences and use a conceptual model that is not much mo complicated than the electrical circuits involved with an automobile battery. Dr. Nordenström has a unique talent of observing seemingly complex phenomena, questioning the meaning of the phenomena and describing the theory behind that phenomena in relatively simple terms.

Dr. Nordenström sees what others do not see or recognize as being significant. Next to him. 1 feel like a blind man. Where others see blips an artifacts on a cancer patient’s radiograph. Dr. Nordenström sees movement of water and material. He sees (and measures) electric potentials be- tween a tumor and healthy tissue. He, then, proposes a theory of, Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC). From this theory, be develops elec- trotherapeutic techniques to treat cancer and other diseases. His theories are "put to the test", and they pass with flying colors.

Some will look at a colored region on a gel that has been electrically ex cited. Most will view the colored region as a blot of color. Dr. Nordenström sees spiralling vorteces of charged matter. Some people look into the vastness of space and see it as "empty space". Dr. Nordenström looks at the vastness of space and sees it as being full of lifegiving energy. He views space as a vessel storing the energy resources that serve as the foundation for all living things.

Björn Nordenström has the mind of a medical doctor. scientist, engineer, poet, musician, philosopher and child who keeps asking; "Why?" He often tempers his judgements with the realization that "nothing is as it seems". -We must rigorously test our theories." Dr. Nordenström is a man with many questions, who is not chained by dogma. lf the dogma is clearly wrong, outdated or does not make sense-, Dr. Nordenström has the brilliance and courage to change that dogma or develop a new one. In doing so, he irritates those who are chained by their dogma and preconceived notions. This is a man who can have an emotional and intellectual impact on all of us if we just let him "rattle our chains".

BCEC concepts and the electrotherapeutic techniques that are evolving from these concepts are extraordinary developments in the history of medicine. Many biomedical researchers have expressed the opinion that "lf Dr. Nordenström is wrong, his work and results still provide significant motivation for us to look at biological systems in a different way." "However, if Dr. Nordenström is right, he will have made the most significant discovery and contribution to medicine since William Harvey described blood circulation more than 350 years ago."

There are many similarities between the research effort, approach and initial reactions to the work done by William Harvey and Björn Nordenström. Using- what was known about physiology, mathematics and physics in his time; Harvey's experiments demonstrated that blood circulated at an unbelievably high velocity. Blood did not just "ebb and flow" as the dogma of the time maintained. Many of Harvey's colleagues demonstrated a Stage 1 medical reaction (instant rejection coupled with anger and ridicule). But the concepts Harvey developed had enough relevance in medicine that, over a long period of time, attitudes changed; and the Stage 2 medical reaction (, reluctant acceptance) began to dominate medical thinking and practice.

In a similar manner, for the past 30 years, Björn Nordenström has utilized concepts in physics, mathematics, chemistry, physiology and immunology-, combined with a massive amount of experimentation; to describe a system of continuous energy circulation and circulating electrical currents in living systems. Dr. Nordenström demonstrates how -'circulating currents influence structure and function. These currents participate in maintaining equilibrium and healing processes in living organisms." Dr. Nordenströms concepts of continuous energy circulation, the interrelationships between life and death; proliferation and regression, energy and matter and macroscopic and microscopic phenomena appear very clear to me.

Dr. Nordenström initially encountered a significant amount of the Stage 1 medical reaction from his colleagues. However, in a manner similar to William Harvey's experience, Dr. Nordenström's concepts work very well when they are applied to medical practice. Thousands of cancer patients have been successfully treated all over the world (Sweden, China, Germany, Italy, Denmark and Poland) with an electrochemical therapy (EchT) approach that was initially developed using BCEC concepts. It is just-a matter of time before the Stage 2 medical reaction occurs with respect to Dr. Nordenström's BCEC theories and the electrotherapeutic techniques derived from his BCEC concepts.

To appreciate Dr. Björn Nordenström, this is the book you need to read first. Once you have finished this book, 1 would recommend that you read the other one authored by Dr. Nordenström, Biologically Closed Electric Circuits. But before you read either book, open your mind and try to ignore your biases. Try to view the author as a brilliant, gentle, wise and knowledgeable renaissance man who is firm in his convictions. Some would say "stubborn". (1 think the word "firm" is more appropriate). Regard Björn Nordenström as a guide and good friend with a firm hand, who is going to take you on a very interesting adventure. The places he takes you may scare you a bit, but your guide and friend has a strong grip on your hand. He won't let go. And when your journey is finished, you will have been given the privilege of viewing the next paradigm in biomedicine by the gi man who was the first to describe it in a way that it can be understood and applied.

George D. O'Clock, Ph.D., Professor College of Science, Engineering and Technology

Mankato State University Mankato, MN 56002-8400 USA

May, 1998


The difficulties to recognize the BCEC-systems are clearly described by George O'Clock. His knowledge in electrophysics has made it possible for him to accept the BCEC as a physical principle. Yet, it must be far more difficult for medical doctors to understand that the flow of electricity requires closed circuits not only in "technology" but also in biology.

The first BCEC-identification was the Vascular-Interstitial-Closed Circuit (VICC) where closed circuit flow of ions produce 12 radiographically identified corona structures around cancers. This was a lucky coincidence due to my interest in carcinogenesis and knowledge in diagnostic radiology. Every BCEC requires the identification of not only the electric potential difference among tissues but also the closed circuit path for the flow of electricity.

The BCEC, existing at metric levels, seem to be most easily identified. But few realize that e.g. the contractions of the heart muscle require a specific Vascular-Interstitial-Neuromuscular Circuit (VINMC) to be activated. Its pulses proceed over closed circuits for activation of the heart muscle. Secondary to these pulses, induced fields can be recorded in ECG tracings. An interruption of cardiac VINNIC can be repaired by means of pacemaker technique. More difficult to recognize are the cellular and subcellular BCEC-systems. The flow of ions in membrane channels such as recorded by Neher and Sakmann, does also require closed circuits. The most possible "return flow" is likely to take place via redox proteins in the cellular membrane with transfer of electrons across the membrane leading to anodic and cathodic reactions.

Each BCEC will require a separate research program with cooperation between biophysicists and biologists. A survey program for such activities is found in the "Afterword" by Prof. Paul J. Rosch, M.D., F.A.C.P. Besides' these examples there are an abundance of structural and functional BCEC effects, which may be recognized. Of particular interest is e.g. the EMF guidance of outgrowth and structuring of blood vessels (I. pp. 152-156) and possibly also nerves. 

Björn Nordenström

July. 1998


To my wife Gerd and my sons Jörgen, Hans and Klas for their invaluable help and support during the last distressing, years of my handicapping disease.

To Ms Kerstin Ersson, Secretary to the Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Institute and Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Without her skill and never failing endeavors in correcting and typing the often unreadable manuscripts the present publication could probably not have been finished.

Björn Nordenström - July, 1998

1. Introduction

The primary purpose for this book is to serve as an extension of a previously published book "Biologically Closed Electric Circuits" (BCEC) 1 11, The fundamental principle of closed circuit transport of electricity in biological systems can be utilized to show how external and internal electromagnetic fields can interact with the BCEC-systems.

In the exploration of factors involved in the development ' of our physical world it has long been evident that the Electromagnetic Field (EMF) plays a fundamental role. Related studies have also taught us how to utilize various characteristics of the EMF. Thus, a closed circuit flow of electromagnetic energy, and its ability to promote co-transport with electrons, is utilized in technology for powering of various electrical devices and systems. This capability has been revolutionary for mankind. Similar EMF relationships and phenomena exist in biology where the closed circuit flow of EMF with co-transport consisting primarily of ions has recently been described in terms of different sorts of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC) (1).

In this book, we will study the EMF and the principle of its flow in closed circuits. This can help us to understand a wide variety of biological phenomena which are still obscure and difficult to explain in conventional biophysical models.

2. A Guiding Philosophy Often Initiates Developments

The founding of e.g. a political party, religion or society are examples of innovations which have to follow some rules of a basic philosophy. In addition, for various scientific situations, a basic philosophy is necessary. e.g. in the descriptions of conversion of energy,

In the 5,000 year old Oriental philosophy 121 the conversion of energy of the universe deals with an assumed existence of a universal circulating energy called Chi. The energy conversion is described in the concept of Tao to follow certain rules which make Nature and its behaviour explainable 1".

Like the Hinduist Braman and the Buddist Dharmakaya, the Tao is the order of Nature or the Cosmic Process, and man has to live in harmony with this order (4) In doing so man will recognize the cyclic motions of energy in Nature in its expansion and condensation. The cyclic movements of planets was extrapolated into the cyclic movements of two opposite components of Chi, called Yin and Yang. They represent dark and light, male and female. Yang is the strong, creative, active and male. Yin is the receptive, passive, intuitive, female element (2) The cyclic dynamics of Yin and Yang is described as the Chinese symbol of the T'ai-Chi-T'a I').

The energy of the universe consists of Chi which is shapeless. By condensation it creates all shapes. The pathways in the human body for Chi energy are the structural basis for the understanding and the influencing of health and disease in ancient Chinese medicine. The flow of energy represented by Yin and Yang takes place in meridians 121. Imbalance of the components of Yin and Yang results in disease. Yin and Yang can be influenced on by e.-. acupuncture, moxibustion, electroacupuncture(!) and acupressure. The energy concept (philosophy) of Chi has resulted in extensive and complex conclusions dominantly related to biology and medicine (2). The energy of Chi is assumed to be responsible for the movements of planets but is not described as the power source for technical constructions.

The Oriental concept of Chi has an Occidental (Western) correspondence in the Electromagnetic Field and the Field-relation to Electricity. In particular, one form of electricity has been used extensively in technology all over the world. This form involves electromagnetic field flow with co-transport of electrons in metallic cables, which may be called Electronic Electricity (Fig. I a). The background Guiding Philosophy consists of the unified extensive knowledge of the characteristics of electricity with its capability to perform work utilizing closed circuit flow in metallic cables.

Chi is described as a powerful energy which can influence health and disease in biomedicine. But Chi is not utilized in technology.

The contrary is found in the use of electricity with its extensive utilization of Electronic Electricity in technology while the use of electricity in biomedicine is poorly developed. For therapeutic purposes in biology today, electricity is successfully utilized in the induction of signal-activation 

Fig. 1. Comparison between powering of "technological" constructions such as electrical motors. lamps etc when only electrons make co-transport with the EMFs in metallic cables: i.e. Electronic Electricity and (b) the powering in Biology which takes place over Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC) when dominantly ions but also electrons make co-transport (in short redox steps) with the EMF: Le. Bioelectricity.

(of vascular-interstitial-neuromuscular circuits in Cardiac pacing (5), in Electrochemical treatment of cancer (EChT), in Electroconvulsive treatment ECT) and in Electro-coagulation using diathermia. For diagnostic purposes the function of endogenous closed circuits are studied in Electrocardiography, Electro-encephalography, Electromyography, etc.

It is now easier to understand and utilize electricity in biomedicine with the principle identification of Closed Circuit Flow of Electricity in Biology taking place in BCEC-systems.

The BCEC-concept may therefore be used as a Guiding Philosophy for identification of the specific BCEC-systems, the understanding of their function and the extended use of electricity in Biomedicine (Fig. lb)

3. Electricity

In Fig. 1 is a comparison made between (a) electronic electricity powering technological systems" such as electrical motors. light bulbs etc and (b) ionic and electronic electricity powering biological matter, leading to structure and function in Biology by the utilization of BCEC-systems.

In system (a) an electromagnetic field is flowing through a closed circuit of metal cables. The flowing field makes co-transport with charged particles. The charged particles which can follow the field in metal cables are only electrons. The technological systems in Fig. la are therefore powered by Electronic Electricity.

The situation in Fig. lb is more complex. In this case, the field is flowing- in closed circuits of electrolytes such as blood vessels with their conducting plasma and in lymph fluid, intercellular fluid etc. Therefore. the flow of electricity is dominantly Ionic Electricity. For function in biological systems, short steps of electron transfer are required. In cellular membranes redox protein molecules are present with the capacity to transfer electrons from one side of the cellular membrane to the other. These molecular redox functions contribute to rectification in the ionic transport mechanism. The BCEC-systems are therefore powered by dominating Ionic Electricity supported by short steps of Electronic Electricity.

Biologically closed electric circuits (BCEC) do not only cover important parts of ionic transports, but they are also prerequisites for biological structure and function. This means that, in biology, there are equivalent mechanisms that are present in "electronic technology" such as switches, transformers, rectifiers, capacitors, electrodes etc. They are Nature's electrical components which function with remarkable efficiency.

An EMF can pass through any medium, including insulators. lf movable charged particles are present beyond an insulating medium through which only the EMF passes, other charges beyond the insulation can be "displaced" by the field. This flow of the EMF with local co-transport of charged particles is, called displacement current (6) which is associated with current flowing in capacitors.

4. The Electromagnetic Field (EMF)

Of particular interest to us is the electromagnetic form of energy described as the Unified Electromagnetic Field (Fig. 2). It is also called the Wavy Field. The Wavy Field fills the entire universe and is present everywhere. This is possible because the EMF penetrates almost everything The field consists of various "amplitudes" and "wavelengths" of oscillations and circulates continuously. The "amplitude" and "wavelengths" are evidently not two-dimensional as may appear in their conventional presentation of Fig. 2. Instead the field components expand in all spatial directions. The expansion can present anodic and cathodic EMF (spiral) vorteces (Fig. 3a). The EMF-vorteces are spiral motions in gradients of the fields 1". They can disclose (8) the presence of the electrical field (E) and the magnetic field (H) (Fig 3b). The EMFs in circulation can promote the cotransport of particles that have a surplus of charge or an induced separation of charge. 

Fig. 2. Conventional presentation of the electromagnetic spectrum. The EMF forms links of continuity and discontinuity of matter and functions.

Fig. 3a. EMF expansion in a field gradient, illustrated by metal spirals imitating EMF-vorteces. Anodic and cathodic vorteces give co-transport of charged particles in the directions of the arrows.
Fig. 3b. Propagation of an electromagnetic vortex (spiral). Z = Direction of propagation. E Electric. H = Magnetic vectors.

The motion of charges induces the flow of the electro-magnetic field components. When a magnet is moved over a conductive ring, electrical current flows 

5. Matter of our Physical World

The unified electromagnetic field of the universe (UEMF) can, by condensation, appear to us as particles (i.e. matter). Particles then aggregate into atoms. molecules and various complex structures. But all matter will subsequently decay (regress) and retum to the UENIF which continues in an etemal circulation. These events have been illustrated by F. Capra "' in a so-called vacuum diagram (Fig. 4) for non-biological matter. This figure indicates that matter decays into its constituent parts.

Einstein's equation (11), Energy = MC2 indicates that three is a close relationship between mass and energy. Therefore, matter can be thought of as "transformed" electromagnetic energy possessing particular wavelengths.

Everything in our physical world undergoes proliferation from the EM field and regression back to the EM field, as a circulation of changing expressions of energy (Il. 12 13).

Fig. 4. Vacuum diagram (F. Capra), shows a proton (p), an antiproton (p) and a pion ur) as examples of the continuous development of matter by condensation of EMF of the universe into particles. The particles proliferate into atoms. molecules, various non-biological structures and so on. All matter then regresses (decays) to return to the EMF. The events represent a circulation of EMF energy which goes on forever. This circulation of non-biological matter - energy will here be extended to include also biological matter.

Everything in our physical world undergoes proliferation from the EM field and regression back to the EM field, as a circulation of changing expressions of energy (11,12,13).

It is proposed here that biological matter, which consists of the same type of atoms as those in non-biological matter, also undergoes proliferation, aggregation, and regression. These processes are mediated by a particular mechanism, which "fully" developed, involves the general theory of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC). These circuits already exist in salt-water of the oceans. Electrophoresis in primitive closed circuit channels in conducting salt water can therefore promote "auto-proliferation" of BCEC systems. These basic processes assist in the transformation of non-biological matter into biological matter. The BCEC theory can be coupled to the theory of biomolecule development by Oparin (14), Orgel (15) and Miller (16). In a glass container, Miller mixed water, H2, NH 3 and CH 3 together. He exposed this "soup" to electric discharges for one to two weeks. Chemical analyses of the content indicated the presence of many essential amino acids and many other biological compounds (111. Miller's experiments have been criticized because of the low concentration of the compounds in the sea-water (after precipitation) and other "contaminating" compounds. It will be shown that the BCEC-mechanism should be able to compensate for the low concentrations by enhancing the coincident contacts of the various compounds. This would -give support to Miller's experiments. Further, a theory will be presented describing how BCEC mechanisms could transfer non-biological matter into biological matter. This additional theory has prompted additional considerations concerning the general background of circulation of energy. In these studies the fundamental questions of progression of matter (leading to life) and regression (leading to death) have given indications that both non-biological and biological matter are bound to participate in an eternal circulation.

The atoms are basic "building blocks" of matter. They are of identically equal appearance in non-biological matter as in biological matter. Another characteristic of matter which has its correspondence in biological matter is the development (proliferation) of various compounds which, later on, proceed with regression (decay). This transition of non-biological matter often takes a very long time compared to biological matter. Biological matter tends to proliferate and regress (decay) more rapidly. The difference is tied to the mechanism of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC). The driving energy of BCEC has its origin in the EMF of the universe and is a basic mechanism of developing biological morphology (structure) and function. The circulation of EMF exists in non-biological matter as well as in biological matter. The two types of matter both seem to "remember" their origin in the electromagnetic field of the universe, which promotes the circulation process.

The energy associated with matter and electromagnetic fields is difficult to define in spite of being a fundamental concept in physics. It is partly so because energy appears to us in many different, transient forms and functional expressions. Let us start with a simple example.

The burning of firewood (energy, appearing as matter) requires interaction with another energetic form, oxygen. This results in flames (light energy), heat, and the energy of ash. The heat may interact with water (energy), -giving rise to the pressure-volume exchange energy of steam. A steam engine further can transform the vapor-pressure into linear or rotational, mechanical energy and drive a generator. producing electricity etc. These events are understandable, but the common background denominator is difficult to define. Various forms of energy can also interact, leading to what may be called chemical or physico -chemical reactions.

The background physics of "chemical" energy components was defined by Nernst. There exists four kinds of energies-, strong molecular, weak molecular, gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

The various forms of energies circulate within the general energy field of the universe. A materialized correlation between "Empty Space" and Matter was described by Einstein who stated that there can be no space or any part of space without gravitation. The cosmic Aether of Newton. filling the "Empty Space" represents also an attempt to materialize a transitional phase which may also be approached in theology. Newton 1121 tried to give it a descriptive functional definition and talked about Sensorium Dei (Sense of God). 

From this definition, there is still a large gap in our ability to define a Common Guiding Principle of metaphysical, ontological transformations of the general energy field. which should enclose all the physical and theological concepts ( 13. 17).

6. Prerequisites for the Presence of BCEC 
(Biologically Closed Electric Circuits) (1)

The origin of physical entities involves energy of various forms. Energy is the origin of our physical world.

The electromagnetic field (EMF) is one basic form of energy, which after "condensation" can appear to us as particles (i.e. matter).

These particles form larger units of matter such as atoms, molecules etc (Proliferation).

The EMF always circulates everywhere, changing its appearance by condensation or by expansion. The latter event tends to produce EMF vortices (spirals).

All matter will, after the phases of Proliferation. enter the phases of Regression, returning to its origin, the EMF.

Proliferation (P) and Regression (R) form a balanced circulation where P+R=-0.

The EMF can therefore circulate eternally.

The circulation of Matter (energy) into Biological Matter (energy) proceeds in processes involving Proliferation and Regression (Decay), within the mechanisms of Biologically Closed Electric Circuits (BCEC).

In principle there is no difference between circulation of non-biological and biological matter, except for the intensity and speed of circulation giving qualitative differences, subtle structural variations and differences of function. 

-Life and Death represent Proliferative and Regressive phases of the General Circulation of EMF-Energy. The circulation is a result of the thermodynamic constraints involving conservation of energy.

-The EMF is therefore the fundamental basis of our physical world and constitutes a basis for the BCEC-systems.

7. Certain Characteristics of BCEC-Systems

There are multiple BCEC-systems of bioelectricity flowing in circuits at metric, to cellular and subcellular levels H. (pp. 122-132).

Closed circuit conductive systems for ionic transport were first identified in blood plasma, intercellular fluid, lymphatic fluid with conductive properties about equal to physiologic saline solution. These elements function like electric cables due to the relative insulating properties of walls of vessels, cellular membranes, ductal walls, fibrous materials e.g. in capsules etc surrounding the conductive media. Thus, the blood vessels are "cables" for ionic electricity (Fig. 5). The walls of blood vessels do have a resistivity 200-300 times larger than the blood plasma 1 (1 PP 125-128).

Various closed circuit systems of vessels, interstitial spaces, lymphatic channels, nerve-conducting channels, glandular ducts etc make extensions of these closed circuit channels connecting all organs and cells to each other.

The activation of the closed circuits can take place as an effect of moving (circulating) external or internal EMFs. The circuits are driven by metabolism causing voltage gradients by the actions of nutrients and metabolites. An important activation takes place as injured tissue degrades. This drives the process of healing- and tissue regeneration by slowly fluctuating and attenuating the injured tissue potential differences.

The metabolic gradients that drive the biological systems are remarkably small. Thus, the overvoltage that drives an electrophoretic system in biology operates by microvolts Leading to flow of microampere currents (18) The necessary electron-transferring steps take place in the BCEC systems via redox proteins e.g. in cellular membranes. In this way structure and function of synaptic vesicles can be explained in neuro-conduction processes.

Fig. 5. A common Biologically Closed Electric Circuit (BCEC), powered by a spontaneous necrosis (injured tissue) in a malignant tumor. Potential differences such as between injured and normal tissue or metabolic differences among tissues induce ionic transports in the BCECs.

An important mechanism is represented by the flow of ions in blood vessels, lymph channels and interstitial tissue spaces 1121 producing electromagnetic fields which penetrate the cellular membranes and induce eddy currents inside the cells (Fig. 6).

The circulation of the EMF-energy of the Universe can be recognized at a miniature level in the BCEC-systems. Activated, these "miniature circuits" seem to remember their origin in the EMF by expressing a"tendency" involving Expansion and Concentration to balance the various phases of proliferation and regression, i.e. input, output, conversion and utilization and expense of energy in an endless circulation. The cells are "leaking" and charged by closed circuit ionic flow via 


6. Ions flowing in interstitial spaces between cells will induce eddy currents inside the cells in the conductive cytoplasm also in the ionic channels of the cellular membrane are closed. The EMF flows through the relatively insulating cell membrane.

membrane channels which promote the flow of electrons via redox protein chains imbedded into the cellular membrane. So. in fact. these are short pathways involving the flow of electronic electricity in BCECs. Various tissues and organs are also internally conducting and surrounded by insulating sheets such as organ capsules. Organs therefore leak blood vessels nerves ducts und lymph channels. 

The body contains conglomerates of communicating leaking) cell and organ capacitors. In fact. the entire body appears to be a leaking capacitor surrounded by relatively insulating skin. The leakage takes place via sweat pores. gastro-intestinal and urinary canals -etc. Due to the capacitive properties of the body and internal flow of ions an EMF-corona extends outward all over the skin surface. This EMF-corona can be photographed using the Kirlian technique (Fig. 7). The body has also internal EMF-fields which will participate in structural modifications. Thus. around internally degrading cancers. a corona will develop (Fig. 8) which produces eleven radiographically identified structural elements. Understanding the BCEC-systems of the body makes it easy to accept the basic mechanisms and pathways associated with Oriental medicine Influences of the BCEC on kidney function and modifications of radiographic contrast media and -Adriamycin (a chemotherapeutic agent) have shown how dramatic changes of the function of an organ can be achieved (33 34) This can be discussed in terms of structure and function in biology (35).

Fig. 8a. Squamous cell carcinoma with central spontaneous necrosis gives injury polarization between cancer and surrounding tissue. Ionic transports in BCECs give rise to Corona structures in the body, such as those which are indicated in Fig. 8b.

The enormous variability of ions and their interactions lead to rapid "potentiated" differentiation of morphology and function. For such reasons, the most logical form of energy to use for influencing biological systems should be the basic form of energy for all biological structuring and function Ionic electricity. Furthermore, electricity also inherits necessary prerequisites for understanding and definition of abstract terms, such as "signalling", "recognition*', interactions at specific sites. etc 121 

Special attention has been devoted to the utilization of the BCEC- system for treatment of Cancer (EchT). Descrption is given on mechanisms of the method (136) as well as the second method called Electrostatic (red Quasi electrostatic) Treatment of Cancer (EST)(37). Other references (36-49) as well as the presentations by Xin Yu-Ling, 31 of his Chinese colleagues, 11 Swedish. 4 Americans (US) and 4 French researchers dealing with the ECT-treatment of cancer are collected in the European Journal of Surgery, Suppl. 574, 1993 1").

Besides the described characteristics of the BCEC-system, an abundance of physiological and pathological structurings and functions can be related to the electric circulatory system (BCEC) in biology. For further information the reader is referred to the original survey description (').

8. EMF-signalling Inducing Displacement of Ions at Activation of BCEC-Systems

The mechanisms associated with tissue interactions with non-ionizing electromagnetic fields, especially interactions with nervous tissue, has been extensively studied by Schwan 50 and Adey ^(51.

The transformation of current in electrical systems is possible by leading current in insulated cables (coils) through a primary circuit which is positioned close to a secondary circuit with similar insulated cables (coils). The EMF of the primary circuit is transmitted through the insulations to the secondary circuit where the EMF activates (makes co transport) with available charges (electrons). In this way the EMF produces displacement current induction in the secondary circuit. The EMF of a transformer primary circuit is coupled to the secondary circuit by a time-varying magnetic field (flux). The voltage, current and EMF of the secondary circuit are in this way a result of the process of induction. To a degree, this principle also exists in biology. The flow of ionic electricity is initiated by a tissue polarization (metabolic or injury) with the flow of ions in the interstitial channels. The EMF producing eddy currents in the cell interior.

Another example is seen in the axons of nerves. When exposed to an EMF the field associated with a nerve axon is a signal which can easily be transferred a long distance in the resistive axoplasm and activate a secondary circuit, such as the Vascular-Interstitial-Neuro Muscular Circuit (VINMC) (Fig. 9). This circuit is described in detail elsewhere (18-27).

Fig. 9. Vascular‑Interstitital‑Neuromuscular Circuit (VINMC). The conducting axon­synapsemuscle are closed‑circuited over the more conductive interstitial and vascular fluids, a necessity for the function of the nerve. The VINMC is activated by repeated EMF signals from the brain proceeding in the high resistive axons of the nerve, inducing depolarization of the VINMC.

The signals through axons bombard the nerve cell membrane of the VINMC, which opens the ionic gates of the membrane of the nerve cell. Following depolarization. this activity leads to ionic activation of the VINMC with synaptic transmitter release and transport 1 `1, eventually producing muscle contraction. This description deviates from the conventional description of neuromuscular contraction, which is described as being controlled by "saltatory (in fact ionic') circuits" along the axons. The latter does however not solve the problem of high resistance of the axons. The speed of impulses of ions is only 10‑100 m/sec which is too slow for nerve activation by ionic flow at least in large animals. The axons present a high resistance. but permit high EMF‑signalling velocities. This leads to VINMC‑activation of peripherally located muscles. Is it now possible that EMF‑signals can start these events? The question will be answered indirectly.

Fig. 10 illustrates a cow looking at a field of green grass. The daylight EMF carries the photon quanta of the green grass in various directions. The cow sees the fresh, juicy grass. The EMF‑signal activates the eyes and the visual memory of the cow. The cow is attraced to the field of green

Fig. 10. A cow sees a field with green, fresh. juicy grass. The photons from the green grass make co­transport with the EMF of the daylight. This co-transport represents a signalling which reaches the eves of the animal- The activated visual memory of the um sends new EMF-Signals which activate salivation. bile secretion etc and the cow may start to walk towards the field. That requires that EMF­signals from the brain activate neuro-muscular pathways which are described as an EMF signalling activating the vascular-interstitial-neuromuscular circuits (VINMC). grass. The EMF-signals travel from the brain of the cow, via nerves, to activate salivation, bile and pancreatic juice of the animal. In this way the EMF-signals from the field of grass can, over a long distance, activate several BCECs.

The activation of VINMC ion channels in the cellular nerve membrane open the channels leading to depolarization. These events activate the VINMC. This gives the necessary energy for activation of the connected muscle fibers.

Fig. 11. Kirlian photography showing the electrical fields outside finger tips of a boy and a girl embracing. (Photo courtesy C. Lindmark.)

The EMF-signals flowing in the axons will bombard the circuit until the ionic gates are opened. We do not need to bother about ionic conduction in the narrow highly resistive axons.

In Fig. 11, a Kirlian photograph is shown of one finger tip of a boy and a girl embracing The corona presented here is particularly well developed. In addition, the more ordinary corona (EMF), extending from the palm of the author, is strong enough to have an influence upon the interior of an experimental animal (rat, sec Fig. 12) which will be described in the next paragraph.

Fig. 12a shows an angiogram of the tail of a white rat. The tail has one central artery and two lateral veins. These vessels form conducting BCEC loops with vessels inside the body of the animal (Fig. 12b). Utilizing general pentobarbital anaesthesia, the animal was then placed in a thick-walled (25 mm) grounded iron box. One electrode was placed in the abdominal aorta and one in the peritoneal cavity of the animal. The animal and cables and the recording instrument were all grounded except for the tail of the animal. The tail was pulled out in a hole in the grounded box. When the hand of the examiner with its corona was moved 3 centimeter above and crosswise with respect to the tail, 4 mV fluctuations could be recorded between the abdominal, shielded electrodes in the rat (Fig. 12c). When the hand was moved lengthwise with respect to the tail, the amplitude of the voltage deflections were irregular and smaller (Fig. 12d).

The experiment shows that the internally generated EMF of man, extending from the hand surface. is strong enough to induce EMF-effects deeply in the shielded body of the rat. signals from his body, (a) interact with the EMF-positioned hair on the tail of the cat. What the cat can feel is similar to what we can feel if the back of a hand (which has some hair) is moved across a powered TV-screen and 10 cm from the glass partition of the monitor. The EMF errission of the TV-monitor will interact with the EMF-corona of our hand which tends to keep the hair in a "radiant" position. (b) The EMF­signal to the tail of the

The EMF from the body of an animal (or man) can function as a warning signal. A cat taking a walk is shown in Fig. 13. The tail is held vertically in an -antenna position". The internal EMF of the tail tends to separate the hairs of the tail and position them perpendicular to the skin surface of the tail. Therefore an approaching enemy (i.e. a dog) will. with the EMF

Fig. 12. (a) shows angiogram of a rat tail. One central artery and two lateral veins are parts of conductive BCEC loops extending into the abdomen. (b) In general pentobarbital anesthesia one platinum electrode was positioned in the aorta and one in the peritoneal cavity. The rat was shielded in a grounded iron box with 1-5 mm thick walls except for the tail. The electrodes were connected to a shielded Grass recorder. A hand of the examiner was moved (with its corona) crosswise and 3 cm above the unshielded tail. Large (4 mV) potential differences were recorded between the electrodes. (c) Movements of the hand lengthwise the tail gave lower and more irregular fluctuations. (d) The movements of the external EMF of the hand induce internal voltage fluctuations via the conductive vascular loops deeply in the shielded body of the rat- The BCECs are truly receptor mechanisms for moving external EMFs.

Fig. 13. A walking cat puts its tail in a vertical -antenna position-. The antenna will receive the moving EMF of an approaching enemy, i.e. a dog. The cat will feel (a) The EMF i interferences giving motion of the hairs on the tail and (b) the EMF induction of voltage changes of the interior BCEC-systems.

cat of an approaching dog will interact with the interior EMF of the body of the cat in a way similar to what will occur when a hand is moved over the tail of a rat (Fig. 12).

The described antenna function of the tail has many physiological functions in animals besides being organs for keeping the balance. Some of these functions include warnings, localizations, defence and hunting.

9. Self-cleaning Animals

The cat is also a good example of how the fur-carrying animals may keep their fur clean. When moist dust particles adhere to their fur, the particles dry and become dislodged by the internal EMF which extends as a corona of the animal's skin. This makes it easy for them to keep their skin (fur) clean. The dry particles simply fall off by themselves or when the animal shakes its fur. It is remarkable how even a white fur of an animal always looks clean. But we human beings also have a corona from our internal EMF. And still we are not self-cleaning as the fur-carrying animals. The reason for this is probably that the fur-carrying animals do not perspire. But we do, and therefore a clean shirt in the morning is dirty in the evening.

10. Harmful Interactions in Biology

Effects caused by man-made EMFs can now to a large extent be avoided. The BCEC-systems act among other functions as receptor systems for internal and external EMFs. It is thereby possible to understand that persons in -irritation-itching, headache, etc. Persons sensitive to the EMF of sun­light may even c s n cancer. A technique to remove the EMF-radiation from computers and TV-screens is described. (Prof. Jorge Cure, Magnetic Shield Corp., 6601 Lyons Road, Suite D2. Coconout Creek, FL. 33071 USA).

During the last years electrical energy has been transferred in one direc­tion via one cable immersed in salt-water and the return flow of electricity via the salt-water. This technique requires large electrodes in the salt-water close to the shores, which leads to the production of large amounts of chlorine in the water. Serious electrical fields will also be harmful to the bio­logical life of the sea. These adverse effects can be diminished by letting the return flow of electricity take place via a second parallel cable. These cables will unfortunately still produce harmful EMFs.

A way to avoid these drawbacks is possible by using a coaxial cable which allows the flow of current in one direction in a central wire and the return flow of current in a tube-like conductor peripheral to the insulated central conductor. The induced EMFs of the-two conductors will largely extinguish each other A remaining field will be taken away by a pe­ripheral. grounded metal screen. In this way no harmful effects will be produced to the biological life at the transfer of electricity.

11. The Electromagnetic BCEC-orchestra(s) of the Body 

The extensive systems of closed electric circuits (BCEC) in the body extend from body, to organ, to cellular, molecular and even atomic levels. Every circuit produces its own EM--field which produces various frequencies wave-lengths and amplitudes. When individual fields meet each other, they interact by summation presenting constructive and destructive interferences. 

EMF environment. "Local" defects causing morphological and functional disorders in tissues can. Therefore, not simply be substituted or cancelled by external EMFs. You can not correct the disharmony of an orchestra from a disturbing tone by adding . On the other hand. external

EMFs -can be used to produce "local chaos" of t e BCECs among cells of a pathological tissue, such as a cancer. Regression of cancer can be achieved in this way. (See page 37 and Fig. 2la+b.) The application of an external field may stimulate the function of an organ.

12. Why Biologically Closed Electric Circuits?

A circuit does not necessarily mean that it is always closed. Almost all electrical circuits can be turned on or off. Therefore, generally speaking, all circuits are provided with a switch, an important practical component in electrical circuits. In biology, the BCECs are also functioning with " switches" which must be on for their functions. The vascular-interstitial closed circuit (VICC) (1, pp. 1; 4 pp. 122-150,318-336) has special cells, the pericytes, which are attached to the outer wall of arterial capillaries. When the pericytes are exposed to a positive or negative electric field, a contraction of the arterial capillaries will be induced which will close the "leaking" stomata of the inter-endothelial cells. Instead of ionic transportation through the stomata, electron transfer (1- p 321) is now possible via redox proteins in the walls of the contracted endothelial cells. Blood is shunted to the venous capillaries with the open stomata of non-contracted endothelial cells. At this point, a biologically closed electric circuit is established (1, PP 134--143). Similar biological switches exist in cellular membranes, which open or close the ionic channels located in the cell membranes. These structures also possess electron transfer mechanisms which take place via redox molecules imbedded in the cellular membrane structures.

As a reminder for important biological switching systems involving closed circuit transport of electricity, BCEC is taken as a term for all biological closed circuit systems.

13. Ionic Co-transport - Field Quenching and Proliferation of Matter

Fig. 14 shows an experiment for explanation of the influence of the EMF on matter. Hydrolysis was induced in a T-shaped filter paper soaked in 2M KCI solution with some litmus added 11, P- 169). Between two platinum electrodes, 4 V was applied, giving a current during electrolysis of 0.5-1 mA. After 12 hours the left cathodic part is blue (OH-) and the right anodic part red (H'). Between these is seen an uncoloured thin (small arrow) line where recombination of water occurs. The blue and red materials do not pass the uncoloured thin line. But the distal parts of the blue and red fields show a clear accumulation of the blue and the red materials (thick arrows) close to the uncoloured thin line,

We know that the EMF between the two electrodes has the capability to make co-transport of charged particles such as H' and OH- for colouring litmus. The EMF also has the capability to induce charge Separation of dielectric particles in relation to a polarized matrix (such as in electroosmosis). In this experiment, evidently H' and OH- appear to have an influence on litmus which leads to the transport of red and blue coloured litmus material. But the materials do not pass through the uncoloured thin line. To further explain the changes in the filter paper the following experiment was made:

An extension of the previous experiment was made and the recordings are illustrated in Fig. 15 (See also ref. 1, p. 166 Four volts were applied between the platinum string electrodes (Ec = cathode, Ea = anode, in Fig. 15a). After start of the hydrolysis, a collection of n OH- (cathodic ionar) and n H+ (anodic ionar) (1. PP- 159-160) -give the blue and red coloring of the litmus containing the KCI electrolyte. By means of a "recording"Ag-AgCI electrode with a salt bridge of 2 M KCI solution, the voltage was recorded first from left to right and then from right to left over the blue and red matrix in relation to a reference electrode (RE) positioned on the "stem" of the filter matrix. Fig. 15b shows voltage recording during the application of 4 volts and the cathodic and anodic colors had developed (12 hours) by migration and diffusion. The left part of Fig. b shows the cathodic blue with variations in the tracing which is dominantly due to gas bubbles in the filter paper H2) The negative voltage reaches a zero in the blue-red interphase zone. 

Fig. 14. Electrolysis of litmus-containing 2M KCI-water in filter paper between two platinum string electrodes at 4.1 volts during 12 hours. Anodic red H'-litmus and cathodic blue OH--litmus move in the field by co-transports with the anodic and cathodic fields. Yellow to the right is., caused by bleaching by chlorine. Co-transport of OH- and H* from hydrolysis of water at the electrodes. When + and - EM-fields meet they counteract or even quench each other. Litmus stained by H' and OH- are released from the transporting fields when they quench and precipitate. presenting higher concentration under influence of gravitation and concentration forces giving proliferation (thick arrows). Excess of H' and OH in relation to litmus approach each other by migration and diffusion and recombine at the field quenching. forming water (thin arrow) presenting proliferation.

The right part of (b) shows a mirror-shape of the left side of the of the tracing.

When the external power source is disconnected (Fig. 15c) a minimal leak of current occurs through the recording circuit indicating a self-driving system, Unexpectedly, the cathodic potential is electropositive. This indicates the presence of a disturbing reaction (CO, from surrounding air) See also ref. 1. pp. 165-167 1. The reversed tracing shows also here a mirror image of the left part of the tracing. The variations in the tracings are due to anodic 0, + Cl, gas -pumped- out in the matrix.

Fig. 15. Extension of previous experiment Fig 14). 4 V. 12 hours. OH- and H+ stained litmus precipitate where cathodic and anodic fields quench each other. Upper tracing Fig. 15b obtained when a "recording" electrode was moved from left to right over the filter-paper in relation to the reference electrode, positioned at RE. during application of voltage between Ec and Ea, and then back. After grounding of Ea and Ec lower tracing. Fig. 15( was obtained at moving the "recording*' electrode over the matrix from Ea to Ec and then back-. Jiggeling of the tracings are caused by the "pumping" of gas evolved at the electrodes Ec and Ea.

The applied voltage (4 V) shows a left positive and right negative field with a zero region here called the recombination zone. In this zone the EM-fields counteract each other, which makes the result of their recombination considerably reduced or even absent (quenched). No possibility of co-transport is possible here. H+ and OH- are released from the fields, and by their charges, attracted to each other. Their interaction produces H2 0 molecules which are adsorbed to each other (proliferation of water). The blue and red litmus molecules are equally attracted to each other in the anodic and cathodic fields by molecular concentration forces. In other words proliferation occurs for red and blue litmus material and water molecules, O2 Cl, and H 2 gas.

It seems apparent that litmus materiel has accumulated at the ends of the anodic and cathodic field. This is possible because the transport function of the anodic and cathodic fields will, where they meet, balance (quench) each other. Field transported anodic and cathodic litmus will in these locations not be further transported. They accumulate at the distal parts of the cathodic and anodic fields and proliferate under the influence of gravitation and concentration forces. Charged particles such as H+ and OH- ions will meet in the midline and recombine into water.

In a three-dimensional electrophoretic instance we can assume that the field structuring EMF-flow will also lead to vortex formation of the cotransported materials.

14-36 : Chapter two